美国国会告诉NASA,美国必须在登月计划上打败中国

RWYQ阿伟 | 2024-07-03 | 资讯 | 0条留言 | 214 | 2024-07-03更新

美国国会告诉NASA,美国必须在登月计划上打败中国 US must beat China back to the moon, Congress tells NASA

        'It's no secret that China has a goal to surpass the United States by 2045 as global leaders in space. We can't allow this to happen.'

        众所周知,中国的目标是到2045年超越美国,成为太空领域的全球领导者。我们不能允许这种事情发生。”

        Artist's illustration of NASA astronauts near the moon's south pole, a region thought to be rich in water ice, a key resource that could help humanity extend its footprint out into the solar system. (Image credit: NASA)

        月球南极附近的美国宇航局宇航员的艺术家插图,该地区被认为富含水冰,这是一种可以帮助人类将足迹扩展到太阳系的关键资源。(图片来源:NASA)


        The delays in NASA's Artemis moon program are making some members of Congress nervous.

        美国宇航局阿尔忒弥斯登月计划的推迟让一些国会议员感到紧张。


        Last week, NASA announced that it's now targeting September 2025 for its Artemis 2 mission, which will send four astronauts around the moon, and September 2026 for Artemis 3, which will put boots on Earth's nearest neighbor for the first time in more than half a century.

        上周,美国宇航局宣布,它现在将2025年9月定为“阿尔忒弥斯2号”任务的目标,该任务将派遣四名宇航员绕月飞行;2026年9月定为“阿尔忒弥斯3号”任务的目标,该任务将在半个多世纪以来首次将靴子放在地球最近的邻居月球上。


        These new Artemis launch dates represent delays of about a year for each flight. The rightward push was spurred by the need to conduct more studies of key Artemis hardware, such as the heat shield of NASA's Orion crew capsule, which didn't perform quite as expected during the uncrewed Artemis 1 mission in late 2022.

        这些新的阿尔忒弥斯发射日期意味着每次飞行的延迟大约一年。向右推进的原因是需要对阿尔忒弥斯号的关键硬件进行更多研究,比如NASA的猎户座太空舱的隔热罩,在2022年底的无人驾驶阿尔忒弥斯1号任务中,隔热罩的表现不尽如人意。


        The U.S. House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space and Technology held a hearing about the new Artemis plan today (Jan. 17), and multiple members voiced concern about the slippage.

        美国众议院科学、空间和技术委员会今天(1月17日)就新的阿尔忒弥斯计划举行了听证会,多名成员对这一进展表示担忧。


        "I remind my colleagues that we are not the only country interested in sending humans to the moon," Committee Chairman Frank Lucas (R-OK) said in his opening remarks.

        “我提醒我的同事们,我们不是唯一对将人类送上月球感兴趣的国家,”委员会主席弗兰克·卢卡斯(R-OK)在开幕致辞中说。


        "The Chinese Communist Party is actively soliciting international partners for a lunar mission — a lunar research station — and has stated its ambition to have human astronauts on the surface by 2030," he added. "The country that lands first will have the ability to set a precedent for whether future lunar activities are conducted with openness and transparency, or in a more restricted manner."

        他补充说:“中国正在积极寻求国际合作伙伴参与月球任务——月球研究站——并表示了到2030年将人类宇航员送上月球表面的雄心。”“先登陆的国家将有能力为未来的月球活动是否公开透明,还是以更有限的方式进行树立先例。”


        The committee's ranking member, California Democrat Zoe Lofgren (D-CA), voiced similar sentiments.

        该委员会的资深成员、加州民主党人佐伊·洛夫格伦(Zoe Lofgren)也表达了类似的观点。


        "Let me be clear: I support Artemis," she said in her opening remarks. "But I want it to be successful, especially with China at our heels. And we want to be helpful here in the committee in ensuring that Artemis is strong and staying on track as we look to lead the world, hand-in-hand with our partners, in the human exploration of the moon and beyond."

        “让我明确一点:我支持阿尔忒弥斯,”她在开场致辞中说。“但我希望它能成功,尤其是在中国紧随其后的情况下。我们希望在委员会中提供帮助,确保阿尔忒弥斯强大并保持在正轨上,因为我们希望与我们的合作伙伴携手引领世界,探索月球及更远的地方。”


        Several other committee members stressed that the new moon race is part of a broader competition with China, and that coming in second could imperil U.S. national security.

        其他几名委员会成员强调,新的月球竞赛是与中国更广泛竞争的一部分,位居第二可能会危及美国的国家安全。


        "It's no secret that China has a goal to surpass the United States by 2045 as global leaders in space. We can't allow this to happen," Rich McCormick (R-GA) said during the hearing. "I think the leading edge that we have in space technology will protect the United States — not just the economy, but technologies that can benefit humankind."

        “众所周知,中国的目标是到2045年超越美国,成为太空领域的全球领导者。我们不能允许这种情况发生,”里奇·麦考密克(共和党- ga)在听证会上说。“我认为,我们在太空技术方面的领先优势将保护美国,不仅是经济,而且是有益于人类的技术。”


        And Bill Posey (R-FL) referred to space as the "ultimate military high ground," saying that whoever leads in the final frontier "will control the destiny of this Earth."

        比尔·波西(R-FL)将太空称为“最终的军事高地”,他说,谁在最后的边界上领先,谁就“将控制这个地球的命运”。


        Four witnesses gave testimony during the hearing: Catherine Koerner, associate administrator for NASA's Exploration Systems Development Mission Directorate; George Scott, the agency's acting inspector general; William Russell, director of contracting and national security acquisitions at the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO); and Mike Griffin, co-president and co-founder of the consulting company LogiQ, who served as NASA administrator from 2005 to 2009.

        四名证人在听证会上作证:Catherine Koerner, NASA探索系统开发任务理事会的副局长;联邦调查局代理监察长乔治·斯科特(George Scott);美国政府问责局(GAO)合同和国家安全采购主管威廉·拉塞尔;以及咨询公司LogiQ的联合总裁兼联合创始人迈克·格里芬,他在2005年至2009年期间担任美国宇航局局长。


        Russell and Scott discussed the challenges going forward for the Artemis program, which aims to set up a crewed base near the moon's south pole by the end of the 2020s. Those challenges, they said, include an ambitious launch schedule and a lack of transparency about that planned timeline, as well as the program's price tag.

        罗素和斯科特讨论了阿尔忒弥斯计划未来面临的挑战,该计划旨在到本世纪20年代末在月球南极附近建立一个载人基地。他们说,这些挑战包括雄心勃勃的发射时间表,计划时间表缺乏透明度,以及项目的价格标签。


        "NASA has not developed a comprehensive estimate for all Artemis costs," Scott said. (He noted that a 2021 report by the NASA Office of the Inspector General found that the program's total cost from 2012 to 2025 will end up being about $93 billion.)

        斯科特说:“美国宇航局还没有对阿尔忒弥斯的所有成本做出全面的估计。”(他指出,NASA监察长办公室(Office of the Inspector General) 2021年的一份报告发现,从2012年到2025年,该项目的总成本最终将达到930亿美元左右。)


        "Without the agency fully accounting for and accurately reporting the overall cost of current and future missions, it will be difficult for Congress to make informed decisions about NASA's long-term funding needs," Scott added.

        斯科特补充说:“如果该机构没有充分核算和准确报告当前和未来任务的总体成本,国会将很难就NASA的长期资金需求做出明智的决定。”


        Koerner acknowledged these and other challenges but stressed that NASA is working to overcome them — and is on track to do so.

        Koerner承认这些和其他挑战,但强调NASA正在努力克服它们,并且正在按计划进行。


        "We believe that — and our administrator spoke about it just last week — that we will be on the surface of the moon before China is. And it's our intent for that to happen," she said, referencing comments made by NASA chief Bill Nelson on Jan. 9, when the Artemis 2 and Artemis 3 delays were announced.

        他说:“我们相信,我们的行政长官上周刚刚谈到,我们将比中国更早登上月球表面。她引用了美国宇航局局长比尔·纳尔逊1月9日宣布阿尔忒弥斯2号和阿尔忒弥斯3号推迟发射时发表的评论。


        Griffin doesn't share that optimism. Indeed, he is very down on the Artemis program as it's currently constructed.

        格里芬可不这么乐观。事实上,他对阿尔忒弥斯计划目前的结构非常不满。


        "In my judgment, the Artemis program is excessively complex, unrealistically priced, compromises crew safety, poses very high mission risk of completion and is highly unlikely to be completed in a timely manner, even if successful," Griffin said during today's hearing.

        格里芬在今天的听证会上说:“在我看来,阿尔忒弥斯计划过于复杂,定价不切实际,危及机组人员的安全,完成任务的风险非常高,即使成功,也不太可能及时完成。”


        Those perceived shortcomings are a big deal, given the importance of the current moon race "in the world of global power politics," he stressed.

        他强调,考虑到当前月球竞赛“在全球强权政治世界”的重要性,这些显而易见的缺陷是一个大问题。


        "For the United States and its partners not to be on the moon when others are on the moon is unacceptable," Griffin said. "We need a program that is consistent with that theme. Artemis is not that program. We need to restart it, not keep it on track."

        格里芬说:“当其他国家都在月球上时,美国及其合作伙伴却不在月球上,这是不可接受的。”“我们需要一个与这一主题相一致的项目。阿尔忒弥斯不是那个项目。我们需要重启它,而不是保持在轨道上。”


        来源——SPACE

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