RWYQ阿伟 | 2024-07-03 | 资讯 | 0条留言 | 214 | 2024-07-03更新

美国国会告诉NASA,美国必须在登月计划上打败中国 US must beat China back to the moon, Congress tells NASA

        'It's no secret that China has a goal to surpass the United States by 2045 as global leaders in space. We can't allow this to happen.'


        Artist's illustration of NASA astronauts near the moon's south pole, a region thought to be rich in water ice, a key resource that could help humanity extend its footprint out into the solar system. (Image credit: NASA)


        The delays in NASA's Artemis moon program are making some members of Congress nervous.


        Last week, NASA announced that it's now targeting September 2025 for its Artemis 2 mission, which will send four astronauts around the moon, and September 2026 for Artemis 3, which will put boots on Earth's nearest neighbor for the first time in more than half a century.


        These new Artemis launch dates represent delays of about a year for each flight. The rightward push was spurred by the need to conduct more studies of key Artemis hardware, such as the heat shield of NASA's Orion crew capsule, which didn't perform quite as expected during the uncrewed Artemis 1 mission in late 2022.


        The U.S. House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space and Technology held a hearing about the new Artemis plan today (Jan. 17), and multiple members voiced concern about the slippage.


        "I remind my colleagues that we are not the only country interested in sending humans to the moon," Committee Chairman Frank Lucas (R-OK) said in his opening remarks.


        "The Chinese Communist Party is actively soliciting international partners for a lunar mission — a lunar research station — and has stated its ambition to have human astronauts on the surface by 2030," he added. "The country that lands first will have the ability to set a precedent for whether future lunar activities are conducted with openness and transparency, or in a more restricted manner."


        The committee's ranking member, California Democrat Zoe Lofgren (D-CA), voiced similar sentiments.

        该委员会的资深成员、加州民主党人佐伊·洛夫格伦(Zoe Lofgren)也表达了类似的观点。

        "Let me be clear: I support Artemis," she said in her opening remarks. "But I want it to be successful, especially with China at our heels. And we want to be helpful here in the committee in ensuring that Artemis is strong and staying on track as we look to lead the world, hand-in-hand with our partners, in the human exploration of the moon and beyond."


        Several other committee members stressed that the new moon race is part of a broader competition with China, and that coming in second could imperil U.S. national security.


        "It's no secret that China has a goal to surpass the United States by 2045 as global leaders in space. We can't allow this to happen," Rich McCormick (R-GA) said during the hearing. "I think the leading edge that we have in space technology will protect the United States — not just the economy, but technologies that can benefit humankind."

        “众所周知,中国的目标是到2045年超越美国,成为太空领域的全球领导者。我们不能允许这种情况发生,”里奇·麦考密克(共和党- ga)在听证会上说。“我认为,我们在太空技术方面的领先优势将保护美国,不仅是经济,而且是有益于人类的技术。”

        And Bill Posey (R-FL) referred to space as the "ultimate military high ground," saying that whoever leads in the final frontier "will control the destiny of this Earth."


        Four witnesses gave testimony during the hearing: Catherine Koerner, associate administrator for NASA's Exploration Systems Development Mission Directorate; George Scott, the agency's acting inspector general; William Russell, director of contracting and national security acquisitions at the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO); and Mike Griffin, co-president and co-founder of the consulting company LogiQ, who served as NASA administrator from 2005 to 2009.

        四名证人在听证会上作证:Catherine Koerner, NASA探索系统开发任务理事会的副局长;联邦调查局代理监察长乔治·斯科特(George Scott);美国政府问责局(GAO)合同和国家安全采购主管威廉·拉塞尔;以及咨询公司LogiQ的联合总裁兼联合创始人迈克·格里芬,他在2005年至2009年期间担任美国宇航局局长。

        Russell and Scott discussed the challenges going forward for the Artemis program, which aims to set up a crewed base near the moon's south pole by the end of the 2020s. Those challenges, they said, include an ambitious launch schedule and a lack of transparency about that planned timeline, as well as the program's price tag.


        "NASA has not developed a comprehensive estimate for all Artemis costs," Scott said. (He noted that a 2021 report by the NASA Office of the Inspector General found that the program's total cost from 2012 to 2025 will end up being about $93 billion.)

        斯科特说:“美国宇航局还没有对阿尔忒弥斯的所有成本做出全面的估计。”(他指出,NASA监察长办公室(Office of the Inspector General) 2021年的一份报告发现,从2012年到2025年,该项目的总成本最终将达到930亿美元左右。)

        "Without the agency fully accounting for and accurately reporting the overall cost of current and future missions, it will be difficult for Congress to make informed decisions about NASA's long-term funding needs," Scott added.


        Koerner acknowledged these and other challenges but stressed that NASA is working to overcome them — and is on track to do so.


        "We believe that — and our administrator spoke about it just last week — that we will be on the surface of the moon before China is. And it's our intent for that to happen," she said, referencing comments made by NASA chief Bill Nelson on Jan. 9, when the Artemis 2 and Artemis 3 delays were announced.


        Griffin doesn't share that optimism. Indeed, he is very down on the Artemis program as it's currently constructed.


        "In my judgment, the Artemis program is excessively complex, unrealistically priced, compromises crew safety, poses very high mission risk of completion and is highly unlikely to be completed in a timely manner, even if successful," Griffin said during today's hearing.


        Those perceived shortcomings are a big deal, given the importance of the current moon race "in the world of global power politics," he stressed.


        "For the United States and its partners not to be on the moon when others are on the moon is unacceptable," Griffin said. "We need a program that is consistent with that theme. Artemis is not that program. We need to restart it, not keep it on track."



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